Вакцин гэж юу вэ

вакцин гэж юу вэ-н зурган илэрц

Вакцин нь тухайн өвчний эсрэг дархлааг сайжруулах биологийн бэлдмэл юм. Өвчин үүсгэгч организмын төлөөлөл болсон зүйлийг агуулсан, ихэндээ микробын хор, үхүүлсэн болон сулруулсан үүсгэгчийг агуулдаг. Эдгээр зүйлүүд нь гадны биетийг таних тэдгээрийг устгах, тэдгээрийг санаж, биеийн дархлааны системийг өдөөнө. Иймээс эдгээр микро организмуудыг дараа дахин биед орж ирэхэд нь, дархлааны систем таних ба устгахад илүү хялбар болдог.

 

Урьдчилан сэргийлэх (байгалийн буюу зэрлэг ямар нэг үүсгэгчээр ирээдүйд халдварлахыг хамгаалах болон дархлааг дээшлүүлэх гэх мэт), эмчилгээ (хорт хавдрын эсрэг вакцин нь судалгааны төвшинд явагдаж байгаа) чадвартай байдаг.

Вакцин нь хэд хэдэн төрөлтэй байдаг үүнд: Үхүүлсэн, сулруулсан, үүсгэгчийн бүрэлдэхүүн хэсгийг цэвэрлэж авсан гэсэн үндсэн гурван хэлбэр байдаг. Ер нь нилээд хэд хэдэн янзын вакцин байдгаас тэдгээрийг бүтээх бүр ч олон янзын технологи байдаг.

Үхүүлсэн вакцин

Зарим үхүүлсэн вакцин нь өмнө нь хоруу чанартай байсан боловч химийн бодисын үйлчлэл болон халаалтаар задалсан микро- организмууд юм. Ийм вакцины жишээнд: томуу, холер, тарваган тахал, галзуу, гипатит А, полимилит багтана.

Сулруулсан вакцин

Зарим вакцин нь амьд, сулруулсан микро-организмыг агуулдаг. Эдгээрийн ихэнх нь амьд вирус байх бөгөөд вирусын хоруу чанарыг нь идэвхигүй болгох нөхцөлд өсгөвөрлөсөн эсвэл ойр төрлийн гэхдээ аюулгүй боловч өргөн хэмжээний дархлааны хариу урвал үүсгэдэг: байгаль дээр зарим ийм бактери тааралддаг. Тэд ер нь бат тогтвортой дархлааны хариу урвалыг сөдөөдөг бөгөөд эрүүл насанд хүрсэн хүнд илүү тохирдог. Жишээнь: вирусын гаралтай өвчнөөс шар чичрэг, улаан бурхан, гахайн хавдар, бактерийн гаралтай өвчнөөс хижиг хамаарна. Галмит болон Гюурин нарийн хөгжүүлж байсан амьд туберкулёзын вакцин нь халдвартай омгоор хийгээгүй боловч хоруу чанарыг нь өөрчилсөн омог агуулсан байдаг.

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